A slideshow recently published discusses Krashen's five main hypotheses on second language acquisition.

Here is a recapitulation of the points covered.

The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis

  • Acquisition and learning are completely different.
  • Acquisition means you're speaking without thinking about grammar or rules.
  • Acquisition means you're reacting and interacting with your environment in a meaningful way: focused on the message to convey.
  • Acquisition comes about as a need and desire to communicate one's thoughts and feelings.
  • Glossika courses focus on audio acquisition and the ability to communicate one's thoughts and feelings.

The Monitor Hypothesis

  • This monitors how you're using the acquired language: correctly or incorrectly and relates to your knowledge of grammar.
  • Optimal use of the monitor focuses on easy-to-use rules and competence as a goal.
  • Over-use leads to the fear of making mistakes.
Glossika App

The Natural Order Hypothesis

  • That language learners learn parts (morphemes) of the language in a natural order is in conflict with reality
  • Textbooks are normally based on what is easiest for teachers to explain, which is not the best approach for students
  • Native speakers use some morphemes more than others, so there is no way to predict priority
  • Glossika courses are built using the most frequent syntactic structures found in language allowing you to acquire a large range of expression in as little time as possible.

The Input Hypothesis

  • What a language acquirer understands is "i", meaning input.
  • Language acquirers should focus on comprehensible input which contains a little bit more than "i", in other words "i+1"
  • Language can be acquired more effectively by deducing the full meaning from context and acquiring new vocabulary
  • Speaking is achieved when the person understands (it's okay to delay speaking)
  • The more comprehensible input, the more speaking one does, the more fluent a learner becomes
  • Glossika courses start with the assumption that you have some "i" already, and you're looking to build upon it. Glossika is also an excellent way to recover/revive or re-learn a language you studied in school many years ago.

The Affective Filter Hypothesis

  • Low filter means: high motivation, self-confidence, good image, low anxiety
  • High filter means: low self-esteem, high anxiety
  • Low filter creates better results: stay positive and don't over-think everything!
  • If you have a strong reason to learn a language and are strongly motivated, then go for it! You can start a free trial right here with us.


  • Design dialogues that you can exchange with friends
  • Design interviews that you can have with anybody that you meet for the first time
  • Make a list of personal opinions you can share with someone
  • Practice role playing as someone else
  • Try to act out how you would solve a problem in your new language
  • Teach or re-tell something that you just learned or heard about in your new language

You can see the detailed slideshow regarding this presentation here: http://www.slideshare.net/AjaanRobCMU/krashens-five-main-hypotheses